By Jo Blitz Escotal
TCP/IP is today’s most popular network protocol and is the official protocol of the Internet. It is a routable protocol that provides connection between heterogeneous systems, these are the main reasons the protocol is so widely adapted; for example, it allows communication between Linux, Windows, Google Chrome, and Mac OS computers spread over multiple interconnected networks. The “TCP/IP protocol” is actually the “TCP/IP suite” composed of many different protocols each with its own functions. The two main protocols are in its name: the Internet Protocol and the Transmission Control Protocol.
IPv4 addressing is assigning a 32-bit logical numeric address to a network device. Every IP address on the network must be unique. An IP address is represented in a dotted decimal format, for example: 184.108.40.206. As you can see the address is divided in 4 parts, these parts are called octets. The current used to address schema in IPV4 is divided in 5 Classes:
Class IP Range Subnet Mask CIDR
A 1-126 255.0.0.0 /8
B 128-191 255.255.0.0 /16
C 192-223 255.255.255.0 /24
D 224-239 Multicast
E 240-255 Reserved
Class #Networks #Hosts
A 126 16,777,214
B 16,384 65,534
C 2,097,152 254
In a class A network, the first octet defines the network portion of the address. The last three octets are used for host addresses and subnet masking.
In a class B network, the first two octets define the network portion of the address. The last two octets are used for host addresses and subnet masking.
In a class C network, the first three octets define the network portion of the address. The last octet is used for host addresses and subnet masking.
A private network is commonly known as an Intranet.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has set aside the following IP address range for Intranet networks.
Private IP Address
IANA reserved 4 address ranges to be used in private networks; these addresses won’t appear on the Internet avoiding IP address conflicts
10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
Loopback Address 127.0.0.1
(Use for loopback and localhost testing)
Automatic Private IP Addressing
(APIPA) is a feature of Windows-based operating systems that enables a computer to automatically assign itself an IP address when there is no Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server available to perform that function. APIPA serves as a DHCP server failover mechanism and makes it easier to configure and support small local area networks (LANs).
169.254.0.0 – 169.254.255.255
Now take the remainder and convert that to decimal. Here we have 4 left, so I I I I is:
8+4+2+1= 15. You can use 15 IP addresses only, instead of the 255 normally allocated.
IPV6 will be 128 bits
Network ID 64-bit Host ID 64-bit