TCP/IP Chart

By Jo Blitz Escotal

TCP/IP is today’s most popular network protocol and is the official protocol of the Internet. It is a routable protocol that provides connection between heterogeneous systems, these are the main reasons the protocol is so widely adapted; for example, it allows communication between Linux, Windows, Google Chrome, and Mac OS computers spread over multiple interconnected networks. The “TCP/IP protocol” is actually the “TCP/IP suite” composed of many different protocols each with its own functions. The two main protocols are in its name: the Internet Protocol and the Transmission Control Protocol.

IPv4 addressing is assigning a 32-bit logical numeric address to a network device. Every IP address on the network must be unique. An IP address is represented in a dotted decimal format, for example: As you can see the address is divided in 4 parts, these parts are called octets. The current used to address schema in IPV4 is divided in 5 Classes:

Class IP Range Subnet Mask CIDR

A 1-126 /8

B 128-191 /16

C 192-223 /24

D 224-239 Multicast

E 240-255 Reserved

Class #Networks #Hosts

A 126 16,777,214

B 16,384 65,534

C 2,097,152 254

In a class A network, the first octet defines the network portion of the address. The last three octets are used for host addresses and subnet masking.


In a class B network, the first two octets define the network portion of the address. The last two octets are used for host addresses and subnet masking.


In a class C network, the first three octets define the network portion of the address. The last octet is used for host addresses and subnet masking.


A private network is commonly known as an Intranet.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has set aside the following IP address range for Intranet networks.

Private IP Address
IANA reserved 4 address ranges to be used in private networks; these addresses won’t appear on the Internet avoiding IP address conflicts through through through

Loopback Address

Loopback Address 
(Use for loopback and localhost testing)

Automatic Private IP Addressing
(APIPA) is a feature of Windows-based operating systems that enables a computer to automatically assign itself an IP address when there is no Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server available to perform that function. APIPA serves as a DHCP server failover mechanism and makes it easier to configure and support small local area networks (LANs). –

128 6432168421

Now take the remainder and convert that to decimal.  Here we have 4 left, so I I I I is:
8+4+2+1= 15.  You can use 15 IP addresses only, instead of the 255 normally allocated.

IPV6 will be 128 bits

Network ID 64-bit Host ID 64-bit